Medals and Honours

All servicemen and servicewomen of Britain and the Commonwealth were awarded medals and awards for their service in the First World War.  In addition there were also a wide variety of orders, medals and decorations given for gallantry and  distinguished service.  General service during the First World War was recognised by the issue of the 1914 Star (or the 1914-15 Star), the British War Medal 1914-1920 and the Victory Medal 1914-1919.  This trio of awards became popularly known as ‘Pip, Squeak and Wilfred’ after characters in a Daily Mail cartoon of the period.  Certain criteria had to be met and qualifications for each campaign medal were:

Description: 1914 Star

1914 Star
The 1914 Star was introduced in 1917 and awarded to members of the British and Indian Expeditionary Forces (including civilian doctors, nurses, and other military hospital personnel) for service in France and Belgium between 5 August and 22 November 1914. The Bar was awarded to recipients of the Star who had actually served under fire during the qualifying period.

Description: 1914/15 Star

1914/15 Star
Introduced in 1918, the 1914/15 Star was awarded to those who saw service in France and Belgium from 23 November 1914 to 31 December 1915, and to those who served in any other operational theatre from 5 August 1914 to 31 December 1915.  The 1914-15 Star is identical to the 1914 Star excepting that the central scroll is titled "1914-15" rather than "Aug-1914-Nov".    If a man or woman qualified for either Star then qualification for the British War & Victory Medals was automatic.

Description: British War Medal

British War Medal
Authorised in 1919,   this medal was awarded to eligible service personnel and civilians. The basic requirement was that they either entered a theatre of war, or gave approved service overseas between 5 August 1914 and 11 November 1918. Qualification was extended to service in Russia in 1919 and 1920.   This was the most widely awarded of the service medals with almost seven million issued.

Description: Victory Medal

Victory Medal
The Victory Medal 1914-1919 was also authorised in 1919 and was awarded to all eligible personnel who served on the establishment of a unit in an operational theatre.   It was not possible to be awarded the Victory Medal unless you also had the BWM qualification and all recipients of either the 1914 or 1914-15 Star automatically qualified for the BW & V Medals.


The following WW1 awards for gallantry and distinguished service are listed below in order of precedence:

  • Victoria Cross (V.C.)
  • Distinguished Service Order (D.S.O.)
  • Distinguished Service Cross (D.S.C.)
  • Military Cross (M.C.)
  • Distinguished Flying Cross (D.F.C.)
  • Air Force Cross (A.F.C.)
  • Distinguished Conduct Medal (D.C.M.)
  • Conspicuous Gallantry Medal (C.G.M.)
  • Distinguished Service Medal (D.S.M.)
  • Military Medal (M.M.)
  • Distinguished Flying Medal (D.F.M.)
  • Air Force Medal (A.F.M.)
  • Meritorious Service Medal (M.S.M.)
  • Mentioned in Despatches (M.I.D.)
  • Citation for a Gallantry Award

Ellesmere Port Men Honoured


Honoured and Remembered

This extract is from the book The Home Front During the First World War - Canal Port at War by Mike Royden(2014) and describes those that were awarded military honours during the First World War. (Under copyright - please do not publish this or use without permission).


Second Lieutenant Leonard Richmond D.S.O.

The highest honour bestowed on a local Ellesmere Port man was the Distinguished Service Order (D.S.O.) conferred up Second Lieutenant Leonard Richmond. He was also awarded the French Croix-de-Geurre with palm (the second highest level of the ward). Leonard was born in Norley in the Delamere Forest area of Cheshire.
(Researched by Mike Royden - please do not publish this or use without permission).


(In order of precedence)


Distinguished Service Order

Second Lieutenant L. Richmond DSO, CdeG French Croix-de-Guerre with palm
the Kings Liverpool Regiment, before being posted to the 12th Battalion Cheshire Regiment


Military Cross

Temp Second Lieutenant G.S. Curtis  M.C.
King’s Liverpool Regiment


Distinguished Conduct Medal

Sergeant W.E. Jackson D.C.M., and Mentioned in Despatches (twice)
11th Cheshire Regiment

Private W. Manford D.C.M.
2nd South Staffordshire Regiment, Lance Corporal transferred to the R.A.M.C.,

Lance-Sergeant Thomas Price D.C.M.,   
8th Battalion Cheshire Regiment

C.S.M   J.R. Crosby   D.C.M.
King’s Liverpool Regiment

Private William Shore (recommended for D.C.M., but award unconfirmed)
Cheshire Regiment


Military Medal

Private J.W. Abbott M.M.
Cheshire Regiment

Private S.E. Appleton M.M.
Cheshire Regiment

Sergeant William Beavon M.M.
58th Battalion Australian Imperial Forces

Private Thomas Beavon M.M.
11th Cheshire Regiment

Sgt. Arthur Britton  M.M.
Cheshire Regiment

Lance Corporal G. Cadman M.M.
the 2nd Battalion South Lancashire Regiment

Private Robert Sparkes M.M.
Cheshire Regiment

Sgt.  A. H. Cattermole M.M
Cheshire Regiment

Corporal J.E. Davies M.M.
2/10ths Liverpool Scottish Battalion, King’s Liverpool Regiment

Private John Leonard France M.M. 
Cheshire Regiment

Private A. Godbold M.M.
Cheshire Regiment

Sgt. Tom Growcott  M.M.
Cheshire Regiment

Lance Sergeant George T. Hacking M.M.
Cheshire Regiment

Sgt. J.E. Hotchkiss M.M.
Cheshire Regiment

Private Jack Jones  M.M.
Cheshire Regiment

Sgt. W. Kay M.M.
Cheshire Regiment

Corporal Jonathan Roxby, M.M.
Cheshire Regiment

Lieutenant J.T. (Harry) Stone M.M.
Cheshire Regiment

Corporal A. Warrington M.M.
9th Cheshire Regiment


Sergeant-Major and First Class Warrant Officer Gerald J.H. Dodd
Croix-de-Guerre France.  (presented personally by General Petain)

Sergeant Reg Stanway,  Croix-de-Guerre, France
Cheshire Regiment

Private George Roxby, Croix-de-Guerre, Belgium, Mentioned in Despatches
Royal Welch Fusliers


Mentioned in Despatches

Private Harold Dodd  
Welsh Border Mounted Brigade. 

Citation for a Gallantry Award

Private Thomas Ellis
Cheshire Regiment

Research note
There may be more awards, but this is the known list so far, gleaned from a variety of records including Medal Cards, Soldier’s War and Pension records, the London Gazette and various newspapers. 
I would be grateful if anyone with further information about recipients, or omissions, could get in touch. 


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